RESULTS OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PERFORMED FOLLOWING A PUBLIC ASSIGNMENT

"METHODOLOGICAL, INFORMATION AND ANALYTICAL SUPPORT OF PARTICIPATION OF THE FEDERAL FORESTRY AGENCY IN THE INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ACTIVITIES RELATED TO CLIMATE CHANGE"

In the course of the work performed, the results of the current sessions of the international negotiating process related to climate change have been analyzed and appropriate recommendations have been given. The main novels established by the Paris Agreement have been analyzed in terms of ensuring transparency in the implementation of mitigation and adaptation measures.

An important event of 2016, in which took part an expert from the
Saint Petersburg Forestry Research Institute, was the Paris Agreement, which laid the foundations for a global climate policy for the Post-Kyoto period.

The Research and Development (R&D) result will be directly used in the process of preparing the position of the Russian Federation on the actions in the forestry sector of the economy according to the main items in the international negotiation process agenda related to climate change, supporting activities of the working group under the Federal Forestry Agency on developing a methodology for the inventory of greenhouse gas emissions in the forests of the Russian Federation, supporting management decisions related to the climate policy in the Russian forestry sector.

"EFFECT ASSESSMENT OF FOREST MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES ON THE CARBON CYCLE IN THE CONTROLLED FORESTS OF THE SOUTH TAIGA IN THE EUROPEAN-URAL PART OF RUSSIA"

Based on the conducted studies, provided an overall assessment of the effects of forestry activities on the carbon cycle management in managed forests of the studied zonal-regional geodetic chain in the southern taiga of the European-Ural part of Russia, as well as other forest vegetation zones, taking into account scientific research carried out by co-authors, in different time horizon (short-term and long-term effects).

The R&D results make specific the theoretical understanding of the dynamics of the carbon cycle biotic components in forest ecosystems of the southern taiga of the European-Ural part of Russia and will be a theoretical foundation for the development and implementation of a strategy for adapting Russia's forestry to expected climate change.

"SCENARIOS DEVELOPMENT FOR ADAPTATION OF THE FORESTRY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN MANAGED FORESTS ON THE NORTHWEST OF THE EUROPEAN PART OF RUSSIA DUE TO EXPECTED CLIMATE CHANGES"

Based on the analysis of the world experience in the scenarios development for the adaptation of forest management systems due to climate change, the most likely changes in the forest cover that require adaptive measures have been assessed.

By analyzing the dynamics of the forest fund over the last 30-40 years, threats in the sphere of forest use have been identified, effects chains have been developed and a scheme of cause-effect relationships, that takes into account the risk factors caused by climate change, has been proposed.

Taking into account main climate scenarios, 3 scenarios for the forestry sector have been developed: scenario Observed Climate Change (current state); scenario B1 SRES (Special report on emission scenarios); scenario A2 SRES (Special report on emission scenarios). A set of adaptation measures is proposed for all key factors in each scenario.

"SCIENTIFIC AND METHODICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE ECONOMIC SAFETY CONCEPT IN THE FORESTRY SECTOR OF ECONOMICS UNDER CLIMATE CHANGES AND ANTHROPOGENIC LOAD"

A forestry management mechanism has been proposed for maintaining the forestry sector safety under conditions of climate change and increase of anthropogenic load. Such mechanism will contribute to the early development of a balanced approach for resistance to external threats.

The indicators are set to the selected criteria that meet the requirements of the economic security of the forestry sector.

"DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFICALLY BASED RECOMMENDATIONS ON THE APPLICATION OF MODERN HERBICIDES IN CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF PLANTING LANDS DURING AGROTECHNICAL AND FORESTRY CARE OF PINE AND SPRUCE PLANTATION CREATED WITH BALL-ROOTED PLANTING STOCK ON THE FORESTRY FUND LANDS"

Calculation and task sheets on the use of herbicides in the agrotechnical care of pine and spruce plantations have been developed.

The research results will be applied in the area of the intensification of reproduction of economically valuable coniferous timber stands.

Calculation and task sheets are recommended for wide industrial implementation in the taiga zone and coniferous-deciduous forest zone of the European part of the Russian Federation.

"DEVELOPMENT OF PRACTICAL GUIDANCE ON THE USE OF ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE SPECIES, THAT LOST THEIR NATURAL DISTRIBUTION AREA IN THE TERRITORY OF THE NORTH WEST OF RUSSIA, DURING REFORESTATION"

A list of the most promising economically valuable species that have lost the natural distribution area in the territory of the North-West of Russia and can be used for reforestation has been compiled. Their economical value has been estimated.

The register of preserved forest areas of economically valuable tree species that lost their natural distribution area on the territory of the North-West of Russia, with a description of the peculiarities of their growth, has been generated.

The condition of the remaining areas with forest plantations of economically valuable species, that lost the natural distribution area in the territory of the North-West of Russia, and the possibility of creating new areas by reforestation have been assessed.

The most promising for the North-West territory of Russia are: siberian pine, pedunculate oak, common ash, small-leaved lime, norway maple.

Identified promising species and conditions for their renewal will expand the list of economically valuable species reproduced on the North-West territory of Russia during reforestation.

"REVIEW OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF USING RENEWABLE SOURCES OF WOOD ENERGY  AS FUEL ON MUNICIPAL POWER PLANTS DEPENDING ON THE FORESTRY MANAGEMENT MODEL"

As a result, reviews of the main global initiatives and agreements have been made, as well as the experience of European countries, North America, Sweden, Austria, the Netherlands, Belarus, Ukraine in the use of forest wood biomass; analysis of various world forestry models (extensive, intensive, plantation) and existing methods of growing and harvesting wood biomass has been performed; the expediency of using different forest growth methods under different forestry models and analysis of the main existing methods for processing forest wood biomass have been analyzed; the main data on the characteristics of different types of wood biofuel for the conditions of Northern Europe and the North-West of Russia have been presented.

For the first time in Russia, an economic evaluation of the efficiency of growing forests to obtain raw materials for bioenergy by extensive, intensive and plantation models of forestry management has been performed. Since Russia has the extensive forestry model, the use of biofuels can be considered as one of the essential factors for increasing the economical efficiency.

"STUDYING FEATURES AND DEVELOPING GUIDANCE FOR CREATION OF TRANSPORT FOREST INFRASTRUCTURE FOR ENSURING INTENSIVE USE AND REPRODUCTION OF FORESTS UNDER PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP"

A draft guidance on the creation of a transport forest infrastructure has been developed to ensure intensive use and reproduction of forests under public-private partnership.

The following drafts have been prepared: forest transport infrastructure roads classifier; standards of density of the necessary forest transport infrastructure in forests of various types, by road types; averaged values of the work construction cost per kilometer, depending on the soil and road type, taking into account the regional coefficients, as well as the mechanism of public-private partnership in creating transport forest infrastructure to ensure intensive use and reproduction of forests.

"DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW FIRE-EXTINGUISHING COMPOSITION THAT INCLUDES WETTING, FOAM-FORMING AND FLAME RETARDANT PROPERTIES"

For the first time, an experimental sample of an all-purpose fire-extinguishing composition has been developed that includes wetting, foam-forming and flame retardant properties that will improve the efficiency and reduce the costs of extinguishing forest fires. The characteristics of the new composition correspond to the requirements imposed by the technical design specification.

In the composition are used the components produced by national industry. Therefore, when put into production, its cost will not significantly exceed the cost of already produced fire extinguishing compounds.

The research results are contained in the application for an invention presented to the Federal Institute of Industrial Property (FIPS) in December of the reporting year.

Implementation of the research results in the practice of combating forest fires is possible in the regional specialized centers for ground and aviation forest protection services.

"CONDUCTING RESEARCH FOR THE SPECIFICATION OF THE WOOD SPECIES LIST AND PARAMETERS OF ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL REFORESTATION IN AREAS INTRODUCED BY THE ORDER OF THE MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION of December 23, 2014 No. 569"

By order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of December 23, 2014 No. 569, instead of the Middle-Taiga Area of the European part of the Russian Federation and the Priangar Area of Eastern Siberia, 7 forest areas have been established: Karelian, Baltic-Belozersky, Dvinsko-Vychegodsky, West Ural, Nizhneangarsky, Middle Angarsk and Verkhnelensky.

As a research result, a list of tree species for these forest areas and parameters of undergrowth and young growth for reforestation selection of methods corresponding to forest-growing conditions have been proposed; the requirements for planting material, criteria and requirements for young growth, the areas of which are to be attributed to lands occupied by forest plantations, are defined.

Keeping record of the justified parameters of tree species during reforestation will increase the economic efficiency by reducing the costs of reproduction of forests.

The R & D results can be used to improve the draft of the Reforestation Policy.

"DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDANCE FOR THE FOREST PLANNING SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT AT THE MEMBER LEVEL OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION"

The guidance on the forest planning system improvement at the member level of the Russian Federation has been developed.

The general assessment of the condition of forest planning in the forest sector of the regional economy has been presented.

The proposals on the improvement of existing forest planning documents at the member level of the Russian Federation, including those submitted by the member executive bodies, organizations, representatives of science and industry subordinated to the Federal Forestry Agency, are considered and analyzed, and guidance for the systematization and optimization of existing forest planning documents related to the presentation, justification and relevance of information on forests has been developed.

Proposals of changes to the standard forms of the current forest planning documents (forest plans and forestry regulations) have been presented.

The basis for improving and optimizing the forest planning system at the member level of the Russian Federation, that takes into account the sectoral rules and regulations, has been provided.

The R & D results will contribute to increasing the economic, environmental and social significance of planned activities, the effectiveness of their implementation at the member level of the Russian Federation. The results can be used in developing forest plans, forestry regulations, forest development projects, regional target programs of the members of the Russian Federation.

RESULTS OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PERFORMED FOLLOWING PUBLIC CONTRACT

"PUBLIC CONTRACT No. IV-16-23 / 260, MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION, TO DEVELOP SCIENTIFICALLY BASED METHODOLOGY AND FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC BASIS FOR THE INTENSIFICATION OF USE AND REPRODUCTION OF FORESTS, AND PROPOSALS TO IMPROVE FOREST PROTECTION. TIME OF PERFORMANCE (2015-2016)"

As a result of the work carried out for the pilot Dvinsko-Vychegodsky taiga forest area, five drafts of the following main regulations were developed, regulating both the implementation of forest operations and planning activities in the forest: Rules of timber harvesting, Rules of forest care, Rules of reforestation, Procedure for calculating the allowable cutting area, and Order on the establishment of logging ages in accordance with the requirements of the intensive forestry model. Proposals for amending the existing documents concern both the general part and the annexes related to the normative part of the specified forest area. Over 100 revisions were made, which were discussed as among forestry and logging specialists as among the public concerned.

A financial and economic justification for the application of new standards (drafts of the Rules of timber harvesting, the Rules of forest care, the Rules of reforestation, Procedure for calculating the allowable cutting area, and Order on the establishment of logging ages) in the intensive forestry model and reproduction, which will allow us to assess the economic effect of the transition from the current model to the intensive model in the pilot regions.

The area of application of the results is the state forest management system, small, medium and large-scale forest entrepreneurship and forest farming.

"PUBLIC CONTRACT No. IV-16-23 / 323 dated May 11, 2016 FOR THE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF FOREST RESOURCES ON THE TOPIC: SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN FIELD OF EFFICIENCY OF FIRE SAFETY MEASURES IN FORESTS AND PREPARATION OF SCIENTIFICALLY BASED PROPOSALS ON FIRE SAFETY MEASURES AND PROVISION OF THE NECESSARY FIRE-FIGHTING FACILITIES FOR THE FOREST AREAS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION"

Scientifically grounded proposals on fire safety measures and fire-prevention arrangement of forests, that take into account the specifics of forest areas conditions of the Russian Federation, have been developed.

An assessment of the effectiveness of the proposed measures for forest fire protection, as well as the establishment of proposed fire safety rules for each forest area of the Russian Federation has been developed.

In the course of R & D, that used methods of system and statistical analysis, methods of mathematical modeling, scientifically sound proposals on fire safety measures and fire management of forests, taking into account the specific conditions of forest areas of the Russian Federation, draft fire safety rules in forests, and draft standards for firefighting of forests have been prepared.

The R & D results will make it possible to adjust fire prevention standards for forests, thereby optimizing the requirements for the fire safety measures, that take into account the specific conditions of forest areas of the Russian Federation, which will help to reduce costs or redistribute released resources to higher priority areas of the forest.

Topics, made on the basis of the state task

"To develop requirements for the structure and drafting of afforestation on the reclamated lands; the criteria for assessing the status of afforestation during reclamation of land disturbed by industrial activity to transfer them into the lands of the forest fund"

The technique of assessing the status of afforestation during land reclamation, disturbed by industrial activity was proposed. The method describes the possibility of the selected stages quality assessment: drafting of afforestation, tree species survival period, period of saplings compliance with requirements to the lands occupied with forest stands; as well as the procedure for quality class determination according to formulas hereto. Example of quality class on three stages of afforestation was calculated.

The method can be used at the quality control of the forest resources reproduction (reforestation, afforestation).

"Study of the genetic diversity level and resistance of the man-made forests of pine and spruce, built using seeds with improved genetic properties"

The recommendations on the resistance improvement of the man-made forests of pine and spruce, built using seeds with improved genetic properties haven been developed.

"Development of strategic planning system for forest fire fighting services activity"

The strategic planning system permitting to determine the optimal values of structure, composition and forest fire fighting services modes of work with different technological schemes of their activities was proposed.

The system developed will increase the efficiency of the forest fire fighting services activity at the regional level.

The study results can be recommended to the Federal Forestry Agency of the Russian Federation, the regional authority for forest management, and regional forest fire fighting centers for practical use.

"Development of information-analytical system with respect of the forest fund area distribution per zones of their protection against fires"

The proposed information-analytical system and developed software for the distribution of the forest fund area per zones of forest protection against fires will be one of the optimization basis of the budget appropriation allocated for the operation of fire fighting services in the Russian Federation for information-analytical system with respect of the forest fund area distribution per zones of their protection against fires.

"The valuation method improvement for the forests commodity structure during the National Forests Inventory (NFI) performance"

Recommended practice on the forests commoditization and specification on the territory of the Russian Federation has been developed on the basis of NFI data and recommended practice on the NFI report preparation per territorial entity of the Russian Federation with regard to commoditization and plantations specification. Recommended practice received allows to enhance the application of NFI results with regard to evaluation of green standing timber according to major groups product specification output at the regional level and to go to the elements of the economic valuation of forest resources.

Topics, made on the basis of the state contracts

"Assistance rendering on the forest fund area distribution per zones of their protection against fires"

Methodological approach of Federal State-Funded Institution SPbNIILH to the whole forest fund area of the Russian Federation distribution per zones of their protection against fire and its practical significance is shown.

On the basis of the calculation carried out, the distribution of forest fund area per zones of their protection against fires for the Russian Federation constituent units, included in the Federal districts was suggested: Siberian, Ural, Far East, Northwest, Volga, Central, South, North Caucasus and Crimea (in the form of tables and charts).

The results of the study can be recommended for the practical use of the Federal forestry Agency, the Executive bodies of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation authorized in the field of forest relations, regional forest fire centers.

In addition, for the purpose of research findings in practice introduction the following works were carried out:

  • tactics and ways of forest fires fighting exercise using of fast-hardening foam (specialized two-component composition for firefighting SDKP-1) was carried out;
  • scientific assessment of the calculation results of the normative number of forest fires preventing and extinguishing means, firefighting equipment concentration points and their location on the territory of forest sites was carried out;
  • forest fires command and control System was designed for Sevastopol city;
  • regional best practices on the forests chemical care were developed including care for spruce and pine cultures, created planting materials with ball-rooted tree system adapted to the forest sites and climatic conditions of the Komi Republic;
  • method of seedlings with ball-rooted system using microclonel reproduced commercially valuable forms of gray poplar (from the collection of long storage in vitro) was developed;
  • specimens of universal trays for raised seedlings with ball-rooted system cultivation were designed and manufactured ;
  • design solutions and technical parameters, as well as the design of drying cabinets for three types of cones and seeds drying agreed upon with the manufacturer were developed.

It was approbated under production conditions of the development, for which 3 patents were received:

  • on the cassette for seedlings with ball-rooted system cultivation;
  • on the universal planting device for seedlings with ball-rooted system cultivation;
  • on the utility model "Conveyor for seedlings transplanting".

Topics, made on the basis of the state order

"Assessment of the structure and dynamics of wood attrition in order to preserve biological diversity in coniferous stands in the Northwest of Russia when carrying out various types of felling"

Draft recommendations for the conservation of biological diversity in coniferous forests of the North-West of Russia when carrying out various types of felling, taking into account the structure and dynamics of wood attrition has been developed. The recommendations are aimed at the forest management and nature protection improvement. They represent the most common proposals permitting to preserve and improve the habitats of animals and plants involved in its development with wood attrition, and provide for the conservation of flora and fauna species diversity in operational forests.

"System improvement of herbicides of different chemical groups and spectrum of activity application when growing breeding and improved pine and spruce seedlings in nurseries"    

Draft recommendations of herbicides of different chemical groups and spectrum of activity application when growing breeding and improved pine and spruce seedlings in nurseries improved system  has been developed, as well as their combinations in common tank mixtures.

The recommendations are introduced in the Shapkin forest nursery of the State Budget Educational institution Secondary vocational education of the Leningrad region "Lisinsky Forest College" and Tikhvin forest nursery of LOGKU «Lenoblles» on the total area of 4.0 hectares of the first and second year of cultivation crops. In fact, the elements of the system developed in one or another way are used in a wide range of constituent units of the Russian Federation when growing seedlings in open-bed nurseries, as evidenced by publications and appeals addressed to the Institute for recommendations on the use of chemicals.

As a result of the introduction of an improved system of herbicides in forest nurseries open ground at minimal cost in -2 1.5 times increased output of softwood seedlings while improving its quality, with 2.5 times the -3 dropping cost and workload for its cultivation, compared with existing basic technologies using the cultivations and hand pulling.

"To develop technological regulations of modern herbicides application during formation of natural pine and spruce sapling of the local genotype at different stages of their cultivation after clean felling of the forest stand in the taiga zone of Russia"

Technological regulations and the relevant recommendations on the modern herbicides application in association with natural regeneration of pine and spruce and subsequent silvicultural care after self-sowing of these breeds on the fresh clean felling in moss group of forest sites types and a draft of practical guidelines for their application have been developed.

"To develop the recommendations on afforestation in the lands of the forest fund having terminated to be used in agriculture"

The draft of practical recommendations has been prepared, including the recommendations on the choice of: soil cultivation ways for tree species seedlings planting, herbicides applied for grass vegetation suppress when plot preparing for crops and type of plant material planting, taking into account the technology of the area preparation and soil cultivation. The information, reflecting the planting assessment of edatopes, the choice of tillage method for artificial plantings, chemical agents for unwanted vegetation control and crops protection against pests and diseases, ten (six + four) technological charts of forest plantations in the process of afforestation creation is given.

"The study of the genetic stability of the triploid aspen/birch cloned breed through genetic and morphometric methods"

Studies carried out have confirmed the possibility of the microclone propagation techniques to obtain seeds of triploid aspen and birch trees with desired genetic characteristics, despite the minor genetic variation identified. It is recommended that you periodically (1 time in 5 years) check the status of the cloned plants genome. It is also necessary to check the genome conformity of newly received shoot culture in vitro, intended for the production of planting material and maternal plant. Based on the research performed "The recommendations for cloned breed of triploid aspen use" and "The recommendations for cloned breed of birch use" are developed.

"Symbiotic microorganisms application when growing planting material of triploid aspen/birch in vitro"

Recommendations on symbiotic microorganisms application when growing planting material in vitro for each breed separately  have been developed. The results obtained can be used in the production of cloned seedlings of particularly valuable forms of these breeds in forest greenhouse and nursery complexes.

"Methodological substantiation for the creation of willow/poplar/triploid aspen/birch plantations with short rotation for biofuel production in the European part of Russia"

Practical guidelines have been developed for willow/poplar/triploid aspen/birch plantations with short rotation for biofuel production in the European part of Russia creation and planting for each breed separately. Practical recommendations can be used for forest plantations creation according to technologies developed as a result of the program BIO-2020 implementation.

"The influence of low temperature storage and cryopreservation for the vitality and germination ability of coniferous species seeds (Siberian larch, Scots pine, Norway spruce)"

Brief production procedure and project of low-temperature storage and cryopreservation of coniferous species breeds method have been developed.

According to the result of the developed technique of low-temperature storage and cryopreservation of coniferous trees seeds implementation, the seeds of coniferous species are stored in the North-West and Central Federal districts.

The expected economic effect includes significant improvements of the seeds storage time and the losses caused by seed production periodicity of main coniferous forest forming species.

"Development of artificial mycorhization of containerized seedlings of pine, spruce and pedunculate oak grown in nutrient substrates, in order to enhance the sustainability of forest crops"

Practical recommendations on artificial mycorhization of containerized seedlings of pine, spruce and pedunculate oak grown in nutrient substrates per each breed separately which can be used in the production of ball-rooted seedling have been developed, as well as on the scheme development of containerized seedlings multirotational growing for the conditions of the North-West European part of Russia.

"Development of new cost-effective technology of fire barriers in the forests creation for localization of high-intensity ground fires"

Experimental sample fire screen for localization of ground fires, for creation of team strips when counterfire conducting, agricultural fires from shifting to fully stocked wood prevention and protection of settlements and facilities against natural fires have been designed, manufactured and tested in different site conditions. Pilot screen sample was tested in 2 regions of the Russian Federation, the results received positive conclusion.

Application of fire screen during ground forest fires suppression has the great development prospects, particularly in the area of forests air protection (in places remote from the economic centers and inaccessible for terrestrial facilities).

The results of the fire barriers application when wildfires in the Mari El Republic, Novgorod district, Krasnodar Krai, Republic of Buryatia extinguishing, as well as tests made in Federal State Financed Establishment “All-Russian Research Institute for Fire Protection of Ministry of Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (FGBU VNIIPO of EMERCOM) showed the relevance of their use for localization of forest ground fires in non-debris-strewn forest sites subject to antipyrene treatment of ground vegetation along the bottom edge of the barrier. In addition, the barrier is suitable for repeated use subject to all technological conditions performance.

"Approbation of new fire extinguishing chemical agents and recommendations on how to use them development"

On the basis of the laboratory tests results, wetting agents Atomic SP-01 and TPM, pills for RLO Liven TC, foam generating agent Fieraks and Ansul SILV-EX are recommended to be used for forestry fire fighting. Recommendations have been developed for the selected fire extinguishing agents application in zones of ground and air forest protection resulted in cost of the forest fires extinguishing reduction due to the new highly effective fire extinguishing agents application.

The recommendations have been delivered to the regional forestry Departments and Federal State-Funded Institution Avialesohrana for implementation in industrial practice during fire hazard period.

"Methodology for estimating reserves of forest combustible materials when conducting the State forest inventory"

Draft method has been developed for forest fuel materials reserves estimation when conducting the State forests inventory.

Data of forest fuel materials reserves on the territory of Russia received during the State forest inventory allows you to assess the possible development of forest fires scenarios, their effects, and allows you to take appropriate preventive measures.

This method has been used in Rosleshoz during the proposals preparation how to improve the method and organization of planning works for the State forest inventory when making revisions of the guidelines of the State forest inventory conducting.

According to the results of the implementation, the increase of the system of governmental forest management effectiveness when the State forest inventory data application is expected.

"The development of the draft guidelines on the forest breeding and seed centers functioning"

For the purpose of the main technological process optimization, the recommendations intended to provide guidance to staff and managers of the breeding and seed centers have been developed, aimed at enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of the operating processes organization.

According to the results of implementation, the enterprises increase the efficiency by reducing operating costs, improving output and balanced inventory planning. In addition, the enterprises have the production processes regulation described on the basis of the technology of ball-rooted planting materials cultivation that allows you to increase the productivity of the system. A list of successive operations and functions with specific methodical recommendations availability allowed to reduce significantly the expenses and to duplicate functions that do not add value. Efficiency improvement of the planned work, control strengthening for the enterprise production cost formation was revealed, borders of safety and critical zones of the enterprise main processes functioning were established. Application of the recommendations developed allowed you to determine the presence of negative deviations according to such indicators as: the degree of the planned results achievement with respect to sales volumes in physical terms, the level of producing capacity utilization, the volume of output, the level of profitability of the activities.

Topics, made on the basis of the state contracts

"Development of evaluation system for forest status and forest vegetation adaptation in the context of global climate change"

The projects of the comprehensive method assessment of the forests response to climate change for different forest sites and methods of regional assessment of the forests productivity dynamics in the Russian Federation  in connection with global climate change, taking into account the timber condition of the territories,  developed on the basis of analysis conducted, allow to study the global climate change effects on forest vegetation of the country regions in the long run, allow us to draw conclusions about the dynamics of productivity and growing stock volume by groups of species, taking into account the timber condition of the territory.

Evaluation of forest productivity dynamics from 1961 to 2011 years, including the timber condition of various regions of the Russian Federation, became the basis for forest vegetation change prognosis on the territory of the Russian Federation, taking into account possible climate change and development of forest management up to 2030 and can be used when implementing the prognosis evaluation of greenhouse gases anthropogenic emissions in forests of Russian Federation in the long run.

Proposals on various forest management scenarios in conditions of climate change for different forest vegetation zones and scientifically based recommendations for their adaptation are the basis of the submission by the Russian Federation of its "expectant nationally defined contributions" to a new global climate agreement for the period after 2020, including analysis of the most vulnerable sectors, investment needs and capacity building, program for adaptation measures in the forestry sector.

"Study of silvicultural and economic efficiency of pedunculate oak seedlings with ball-rooted system cultivation"

Methods for winter storage of oak with ball-rooted system planting material has been developed; seasonal dynamics of the trial plantation growth of oak seedlings with ball-rooted system and bear root system has been studied; the draft feasibility study of the establishment of the forest oak using planting material with ball-rooted system has been developed; the efficiency of oak seedlings with ball-rooted system for conditions of the South taiga subzones of the North-West of Russia has been determined.

Methodical recommendations for oak with a ball-rooted system cultivation for conditions of the South taiga subzones of the North-West of Russia have been prepared.

In addition, for the purpose of research findings implementation in practice, the following works were carried out:

  • project documentation for root-balled tree system seeding tray and for pricking cut line has been developed;
  • the first sample of the universal planting device "SPbNIILH-PU-01" has been manufactured. After testing, the design was modified. The order on production of the first fifty pilot sets was placed for comprehensive tests in various regions of Russia.
  • chemical treatment of Sosnowsky cow-parsnip on municipal territories of some parts of the Leningrad region as well as in the federal highways right of way was successfully conducted. Processing efficiency is not less than 95%;
  • methods for winter storage of oak seedlings with ball-rooted system have been developed;
  • seasonal dynamics of the trial plantation growth of oak seedlings with ball-rooted system and bear root system has been studied
  • draft feasibility study of the establishment of the forest oak using planting material with ball-rooted system has been developed;
  • efficiency of oak seedlings with ball-rooted system for conditions of the South taiga subzones of the North-West of Russia has been determined.
  • methodical recommendations for oak with a ball-rooted system cultivation for conditions of the South taiga subzones of the North-West of Russia have been prepared.
  • developments for creation of specialized videomonitoring complexes of forest fires on the forest fund territory  detection have been successfully introduced in Moscow and Tyumen regions.

State registration certificate of computer software for the developed system of early detection and management decisions support during forests protection against fires "Il'M" was received.

Themes, made on the basis of the State task

"Development of proposals on artificial (silviculture) and combined method of target species recovery correction based on the the process of plantation formation on the experimental-production plots study"

Basic technology charts are developed for creation of commercially valuable saplings of artificial and combined origin in various forest conditions. Recommendations for coniferous and deciduous saplings recovery by means of artificial and combined ways on the forest fund lands of European part of Russia. Creation of basic technological charts draft for saplings of birch up to 7-8 years of age, as well as recommendations for artificial and combined recovery of commercially-valuable saplings in the Srednetaezhny forest area of the European part of Russia are introduced in Lyuban, Gatchina forestries, Lisinsk experimental station pf the Leningrad region on 45.6 square hectares with the purpose of reforestation efficiency improvement.

As a result of implementation, the economic effect is expected as reforestation cost reduction when maintaining silvicultural requirements to quality of saplings under formation.

"A comprehensive assessment of the forest resources availability, taking into account the development of transport infrastructure on the territory of North-West Federal District"

The proposals for sustainable use of the North-West Federal District forest resources have been prepared on the basis of:

  • comprehensive assessment of the forest resources availability;
  • information of the transport ways status examination,
  • information on the roads of different categories density analysis;
  • study and evaluation of information on timber production volumes,
  • roadpattern;
  • analysis of social aspects of regions roadpattern, data of road network state, materials of forest roads categories

Proposals can be used by regional forest management and forest fund potential tenants for attractive forest areas identification to make the forest resources use efficient.

As a result of the implementation, it is possible to assess the degree of forest resources economic availability and profitability of their development. Environmental aspect presented in this research and development, allows to minimize the negative impact on the environment in conditions of industrial logging.

"Development of recommendations on the rational use of drained lands in the forest fund on the example of Leningrad, Novgorod, Vologda and Arkhangelsk regions"

Recommendations on the rational use of drained lands in the forest fund on the example of Leningrad, Novgorod, Vologda and Arkhangelsk regions have been developed. The proposal on  the "Main regulations on forest hydromelioration" revision approved by the Federal Forestry Agency in 1995, with regard to the inclusion in them of the above recommendations have been provided.

Recommendations may be used for drainage system and clean felling drainage reconstruction, providing maximum use of the drained land fertility, creation of stands with targeted parameters of taxational indicators, acceleration of costs spent on amelioration return.

As a result of the implementation, high silvicultural and economic efficiency of the forest lands drainage is expected that would maintain the necessary felling volumes in forest estate lands with exhausted forest base on dry lands.

"Improvement of multirotational schemes of containerized tree seedlings planting for the North-West European part of Russia conditions, depending on the summer type greenhouses equipment configuration"

Practical recommendations on multirotational schemes of containerized tree seedlings planting use for the North-West European part of Russia conditions have been prepared. The proposed recommendations are implemented in the Luga selection-seed center of the Leningrad region and is used for pine and spruce ball-rooted seedling planting.

"Development of method for comprehensive assessment of Norway spruce genotypes for plantations of high genetic value creation"

Method for comprehensive assessment of plus trees genetic properties to create seed plantations of high genetic value on the basis of the families studies in the test cultures and clones on seed plantations have been developed.

The technique is used in the design and operation of the united genetic and selection complex (mother-tree archives of the first-order and higher genetic value) in Leningrad region (Gatchinskoe forestry, Taitskoye forestry). The expected economic effect is the increase of Norway spruce crops productivity created using seed material of  "high genetic value" and "elite" breeding categories.

"Ensuring of biotechnological and selection achievements"

For the purpose of creation and maintaining a collection of fast-growing tree species clones with valuable commercial properties, the Institute supports 8 lines of Aspen of Kostroma Forest Experiment Station and Finnish selection. From them: four - triploid, two - diploid fast-growing and resistant to the heart rot, one - hybrid with higher rates of growth, one -normal diploid used as a control. 6 birch lines of our selection are also supported.

Collection of selected and forest forming species clones received through biotechnological way in conditions of in vitro, as well as the comparative characteristic of clones based on laboratory experiments, microplot tests and studies of forest test crops is used for cultivation of cloned birch planting material which was used for plantations (0.3 HA) creation on unused farmlands of the State Scientific Institution  "Leningrad Scientific-Research Institute of Agriculture" (Leningrad region, Gatchinsky district, Belogorka). The collection is also used to perform research on the State task topic: "Research of the genetic stability of the birch cloned breed through genetic and morphometric methods», «Use of symbiotic microorganisms during cultivation of aspen triploid planting material in vitro".

As a result of the introduction it is expected that the use of collection of clones to create fast-growing plantations will increase productivity of plantings at 30-50% (expert assessment) depending on the soil fertility of the selected site.

"Evaluation of fungi pathogenicity developing in declining stands of the taiga forests of the European part of Russia"

According to the results of researches carried out, 204 taxons of fungi were found (kingdom Fungi subdivisions Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Deuteromycota) included in aspen consortium in the conditions of taiga forests of the European part of Russia. The list of identified species is compiled. For species of economic importance, the description allowing to carry out their diagnosis are made. Summary of fungi species found in declining stands of aspen in Russia, presented as a result of the work, is the most complete.

"Development of recommendations on forest fires detection and suppression"

Draft recommendations on the forest fires detection and suppression was prepared regulating activity firefighting services during forest fires detection and extinguishing.

"Development of methodical recommendations on parameter determination of fire barriers in pine forests, methods and technical means of their creation"

Methodological recommendations were developed in respect of parameters determination of fire barriers in pine forests, methods and technical means of their creation when protecting objects located in the forests against fires that can be used in fire-fighting management of forest territories around such objects. Implementation of these recommendations will protect valuable forests against fires, hundreds of settlements, thousands of houses and other infrastructure facilities located in or having a common border with them.

Topics, made on the basis of the state contracts

"The scientific rationale for the establishment of criteria and standards for forests inclusion in the categories of protective forests, allocation of especially protective forest sites in the protective forests, exploitable forests, and reserved forests"

In the new draft document, the forests categorizing to protective forests is shown. The functional purpose and role of forests in different protective forests categories is clarified. Criteria and regulations of protective forests categories and especially protective sites establishment are normalized. The order of forest areas falling under only one of the protective forests categories was established. It is requested to allocate functional zones within the categories of protective forests on which more strict regime is established. For example, protected shoreline belts in water protection zones. It is not recommended to allocate especially protective sites in the protective forests if they have the same preservation duty, as well as in the reserved forests.

The proposals to transfer all technical description (list of categories of protective forests and RAM) from Forestry Code of the Russian Federation to lower-level documents were formulated. The proposals are finalized as a draft amendments to the Forestry Code of the Russian Federation, including the new wording of article 102. Additionally, the proposals on other articles of the Forestry Code of the Russian Federation have been prepared.

"Development of scientific rationale for the forest fund zoning according to instructions for use of fire combat forces"

The developed scientific rationale for the forest fund zoning according to instructions for use of fire combat forces are based on the system of indicators, from which these methods depend on. For each indicator, the numeral criterion for the forest fund zoning according to fire combat force way of use has been proposed.

Recommendations on the forest fund territory zoning have been prepared according to fire combat force way of use with detailed description necessary for the input information calculation. The sources of input information have been described.

"The scientific rationale of workscope standards, strength for duty attracted for forest fires extinguishing taking into account different fire conditions"

Based on the scientific analysis of historic data on the fire fighting bulk, strength for duty attracted for forest fires extinguishing in regions with different fire conditions, including scope of works, requirements for the works performance, average and peak number of fires per year, the conclusions about the fire services provision have been made. The results of the forest fire service works are recorded using the standard values of indicators that are associated with the levels of protection of the territories concerned. Workscope standards for forest fires extinguishing, normative values of technical means numbers have been calculated. Mathematical model for standard number of strength for fire extinguishing calculation has been developed.

Further, the study results can be recommended for calculation of workscope standards during forest fires extinguishing, as well as fire extinguishing strength of specialized fire units.

"The project of evidence-based recommendations for the construction, renovation and operation of the forest hydromelioration systems, as a part of the forests and used peatlands fire management plan"

Approximately 40% of forest drainage networks channels are in poor and bad condition. Forest hydromelioration systems need to be repaired and reconstructed. These works, as well as new drainage, should be carried out in close conjunction with forests fire management and cutover peatlands returned to the forest  fund.

Based on the literature and the results of the studies analysis, the existing recommendations in the technical guidance and forests fire management of drained lands of forest fund when constructing new forest hydromelioration systems, during their reconstruction and subsequent technical operation are reviewed and "Draft evidence-based recommendations on construction, renovation and operation of forest hydromelioration systems as a part of forests and cutover peatlands fire management plan" is presented.

The project is used in recommendations with respect of the technology of the drained land input into practical use (recovery (renaturation) of marshes, the drainage network on unforested lands restoration, successful afforestation with broadleaved species naturally).

The results of the work are used when planning forest fire management in the constituent units of the Russian Federation, when developing forestry regulations and forest development plans.

In addition, for the purpose of research findings in practice introduction the following works were carried out:

  • proposals to improve the seeds of pine and spruce sowing in containers with artificial substrate improvement were developed;
  • proposals to improve the effectiveness of the different schemes of pine and spruce growing in containers with artificial substrate in the Forest Breeding and Seed Center of Leningrad region were developed;
  • laboratory studies of the improved wetting agent TPM were carried out to assess its application during forest fires extinguishing;
  • methodical recommendations for bench tests on evaluation of fire resistance of the forest fire crawler tractor Onezhets 310BG were developed and the tractor Onezhets 310BG was tested for fire;
  • FIREGIS software - a system of video monitoring of forest fires has been developed, the software has been delivered to a number of forestries of the Moscow region;
  • system of the forest fire units operational control using the protected video conferencing has been created;
  • design documentation has been developed and prototype of seedlings ejector pin  SPbNIILH-VSU-01 has been manufactured.