SPbFRI provides a full range of services in the field of forest genetics, including works on genomic selection and genome editing of plants, based on high-throughput sequencing and omics technologies.
- Getting selection-improved seeds of woody plants with accelerated growth at a fundamentally new level. Genomic selection is a modern alternative to the traditional "plus selection" of forest species.
- The use of high-throughput sequencing technologies using next generation sequencers (Next Generation Sequencing, NGS) makes it possible to find out which feature in the structure of the tree genome is always combined with a bonus economic trait (for example, accelerated growth, reduced lignin content, technical qualities of wood - multivertex, frost resistance, pest resistance).
- Genome editing using CRISPR-Cas9 technology to eliminate unwanted traits in a specific genotype (clone).
- The CRISPR-Cas9 technology in many countries (for example, the USA and Japan) is not considered as a GMO, since it does not introduce any foreign genetic material into the body and is officially approved as a safe method for obtaining new plant varieties and their industrial use.
- A relatively budgetary method for assessing the genetic diversity of tree species to identify stands that are rich or poor in genetic variability.
- Confirmation or clarification of clone placement schemes for certification of breeding objects, identification of clonal descendants of plus trees.
- Solves the problem of choosing areas for the placement of new genetic breeding objects, taking into account the influence of the presence (or intensity) of anthropogenic pollution.
- Analysis of resistance to anthropogenic pressure of already existing genetic and breeding objects.
- Ecological monitoring of anthropogenic pollution spots on any areas with woody vegetation.
Volkov V.A., Grigoreva E.A., Lebedeva M.V., Potokina E.K. Heteroplasmy and nuclear copies of mitochondrial genes (NUMTs) identified in the zone of introgressive hybridization of Norway spruce and Siberian spruce//Proceedings of the Saint Petersburg Forestry Research Institute, 2022.
Analysis of the polymorphism of microsatellite loci in Picea Abies (l.) H. Karst. And Picea Obovatа Ledeb populations/ V.A. Volkov, G.V. Kalko // Proceedings of the St. Petersburg Forestry Academy. - 2021. - Issue. 237. - S. 97-108.
Volkov V.A., Kalko G.V. Analysis of the polymorphism of microsatellite loci in Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. and Picea obovatа Ledeb populations. Izvestia Sankt- Peterburgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 97–108 (in Russian with English summary). DOI: 10.21266/2079-4304.2021.237.97-108.
Karzhaev D.S. Employing of CRISPR/Cas9 technology to knock out genes associated with flowering in aspen //Plant Genetics, Genomics, Bioinformatics, and Biotechnology. – 2021. – С. 104-104.
Karzhaev D.S. Selection of candidate genes for editing in order to obtain sterile forms of aspen (Populus tremula L.) // E.D. Safronycheva, D.S. Karzhaev // System biology and bioinformatics (SBB-2021). Abstracts of the 13th International School of Young Scientists. Novosibirsk, 2021. - P. 51.
Pekedova A.B. Approbation of the MS-ISSR method for assessing the DNA methylation profiles of European spruce in the zone of anthropogenic pollution / A.B. Pekedova, G.V. Kalko // Proceedings of the St. Petersburg Forestry Research Institute. - 2021. - No. 4. - P. 4–18.
Kalko, G.V. The use of amplicon melting curves in evaluating the suitability of European spruce nSSR loci for multiplexing / G.V. Kalko, R.R. Musina // Proceedings of the St. Petersburg Forestry Research Institute. - 2020. - No. 1. - P. 16–31. – ISSN 2079-6080.
Germak, M.V. microsatellite analysis for the evaluation of differentiation between norway spruce populations in the northwest of Russia/ M.V. Germak, G.V. Kalko // Proceedings of the St. Petersburg Forestry Research Institute. - 2019. - No. 1. - P. 4–14. – ISSN 2079-6080.
Kalko, G. Real-Time PCR and analysis of amplicon melting curves to assess the suitability of SSR loci of Scots pine for multiplexing / G. Kalko and T. Kotova. – doi:10.1088/1755-1315/392/1/012015 // IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. – 2019. – Vol. 392, 012015.
Kalko, G.V. Microsatellite markers for estimation of genetic diversity of Scotch pine: a review / G.V. Kalko, T.M. Kotova // Proceedings of the St. Petersburg Forestry Research Institute. - 2018. - No. 3–4. – P. 17–30. – ISSN 2079-6080.
Kalko, G.V. Selection criteria for markers for sets of microsatellites used to assess the genetic diversity of European spruce and Scotch pine populations / G.V. Kalko, M.V. Kuzmina, T.M. Kotova // Collection of abstracts. International Scientific Conference PLAMIC2018 "Plants and Microorganisms: Biotechnology of the Future" Ufa, June 13-17, 2018 / ed. ed. I.A. Tikhonovich. - Ufa, 2018. - P. 157. - ISBN 978-5-6041302-1-6.
Kalko G.V. Genetic variability and differentiation of natural and artificial populations of European spruce in the North-West of Russia by microsatellite loci / G.V. Kalko, M.V. Kuzmina, T.M. Kotova // Proceedings of the international forum "Biotechnology: state and development prospects". - Moscow. - 2018. - S. 783-784. – ISBN 978-5-9909118-0-2.
Kotova, T.M. Selection of microsatellite markers of Scots pine for assessing genetic diversity in Scots pine populations in the North-West of Russia / T.M. Kotova, M.V. Kuzmina, G.V. Kalko // Proceedings of the IV (XII) International Botanical Conference of Young Scientists in St. Petersburg April 22–28, 2018 / ed. ed. S.V. Volobuev. - St. Petersburg. : BIN RAN, 2018. - S. 66–67. – ISBN 978-5-7629-2218-0.
Kalko, G.V. The use of microsatellite markers to assess the genetic diversity of Norway spruce: a review / G.V. Kalko, M.V. Kuzmina // Proceedings of the St. Petersburg Forestry Research Institute. - 2018. - No. 1. -S. 32–47. – ISSN 2079-6080.
On December 8-10, 2021, Vologda hosted the International Forestry Forum and Exhibition "Russian Forest", the Round Table "Forest and Climate". Researcher V.A. Volkov made a presentation "The use of genomic technologies for the accelerated production of improved clones of tree species."
On November 23–25, 2021, the All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference “Modern Biology and Biotechnology: Problems, Trends, Prospects” was held in Volgograd, at which the head of the laboratory, Ph.D. G.V. Kalko made a plenary report "The content of heavy metals and sulfur in the needles of European spruce in the emission zone of a metallurgical enterprise in the Leningrad region."
On September 28–29, 2021, the 23rd St. Petersburg International Forest Industry Forum was held in St. Petersburg. Head of the group of genomic and biotechnologies E.K. Potokina made a presentation "Possibilities of methods of genomic selection and gene editing for the improvement of forest species."
On June 14–18, 2021, the VI International Scientific Conference "Genetics, Genomics, Bioinformatics and Plant Biotechnology" (PlantGen2021) was held in Novosibirsk. At the conference, a report was made by a specialist of the research laboratory D.S. Karzhaev.
On September 28–29, 2021, the 23rd St. Petersburg International Forest Industry Forum was held in St. Petersburg. As one of the experts of the conference "Forestry", the leading researcher of the research laboratory E.K. Potokina with the report “Obtaining sterile environmentally friendly forms of aspen by genome editing”.
On September 29-30, 2020, the 22nd St. Petersburg International Timber Forum was held in St. Petersburg. Leading researcher of the research laboratory E.K. Potokina, in the framework of the plenary discussion on the transformation of the forestry industry, made a presentation “Genomic technologies in forestry: opportunities and prospects”.
On October 3–4, 2019, Voronezh hosted the International Scientific and Practical Conference "Forest Ecosystems as a Global Resource of the Biosphere: Challenges, Threats, Solutions. Forestry - 2019. The head of the laboratory G.V. Kalko with the report "Real-Time PCR and analysis of amplicon melting curves to assess the suitability of SSR loci of Scots pine for multiplexing".
On September 16–20, 2019, in Shchuchinsk (Kazakhstan), on the basis of the Kazakh Research Institute of Forestry and Agroforestry, the 6th International Conference-Meeting "Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources" was held. The head of the laboratory G.V. Kalko with the report "Analysis of the melting curves of amplicons".
Since 2012, SPbFRI employees, as experts of the Federal Forestry Agency, have been actively participating in the sessions of the subsidiary bodies of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the sessions of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement, as well as in other international events, both in Russia, and abroad, aimed at considering the impact of climate change on forest ecosystems. Institute scientists are directly involved in shaping the position of the delegation of the Russian Federation in the framework of the international negotiation process in the field of climate change, based on the analysis of the results of the negotiation sessions and an informal dialogue of experts.
In addition, the staff of the Institute take part in the discussion of the operationalization of the mechanisms of the Paris Agreement in terms of mitigation and adaptation, financing and strengthening the capacity of developing countries, monitoring the achievement of the UNFCCC goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would not allow dangerous anthropogenic impact to the climate system.
One of the modern trends introduced into the practice of forestry is molecular genetic methods of analysis, which have already found wide application in medicine, biotechnology, agriculture, forensics and other fields.
DNA analysis opens up new and broad perspectives in a number of forestry activities. Taken together, the successful introduction of genetic technologies into the practice of forestry makes it possible to increase the efficiency of state forest control, the quality of reforestation and at the same time reduce the loss of forest resources from pests and diseases, and illegal timber trafficking. Genetic methods already now can provide both economic and environmental benefits.
The need to introduce genomic technologies into the practice of forestry has long been recognized abroad. World experience includes many successful projects for the creation of centers for obtaining and processing genomic data of forest species. An example is the American project TreeGenes (treegenesdb.org), which contains extensive data on the phenotyping and genotyping of forest species; Chinese project PICEAdatabase (piceadb.com) containing spruce genomic analysis data; the Swedish Spruce Genome Project (congenie.org), and in Canada, the first attempts have already been made to create forest plantations using genomic selection methods
One of the tasks of the Institute is the introduction of modern high-tech methods in scientific research and the transfer of the results obtained into the practice of forestry.