Борьба с лесными пожарами

Wildfire fighting

Development of new ground  and air  technologies and technical facilities for wildfire fighting and practical recommendations on their application

Development of new technical means and technologies of their application for wildfire prevention, detection, and extinguishing is one of the ways of wildfire fighting efficiency increase. During 80 years SPbNIILH have been participating in designing, producing, and tests conducting of many machines and mechanisms intended for these purposes. In the recent years,  the practice of wildfire suppression from air with wetting agents and foaming agent supply systems in water discharge devices SPS-1 and SDP-1, the prototype of helicopter high pressure discharge equipment located on the helicopter external suspension is introduced.

The SPbNIILKh employees are ready to carry out the following works:

  1. technical-economic assessment of new ground and aviation technical means production requirement for forest fire prevention, detection, and suppression;
  2. development of original technical requirements for new machines, mechanisms, and equipment for wildfires extinguishing and specifications for their creation;
  3. support of development, creation of methods, and all stages of laboratory, field, bench, flying, new fire control equipment tests conducting. Development of findings based on the test results;
  4. development of norms per implementation of works with application of new technical means and development of practical recommendations on tactics and methods of their application;
  5. development of practical recommendations on economical-to-operate light and superlight aircraft of different types use in forest fire protection.

Priority of the Institute work streams

In sphere of forest fire protection, the Institute can carry out studies in the following fields:

  1. development of recommendations on prompt forest fire detection and extinguishing at early stages of its development;
  2. exploration of dangerous factors parameters of forest fires and their impact on people, apparatus, and facilities located in forests;
  3. development of firefighting management plan of settlements and economic entities contiguous to forestlands, including:
    • list of activities (recommendations) on firefighting management of settlements and economic entities contiguous to forestlands;
    • map-scheme of firefighting management;             
    • estimate of expenses to perform fire-prevention activities;
  4. development of recommendations on definition of fire barriers parameters in pine forests, ways and technical means of their creation.

Testing and approbation of new extinguishing agents intended for wildfire fighting.

Use of chemical-extinguishing agents (EA) and their solutions is one of the ways of wildfire fighting with the help of ground and air technical means. They are used for active fire extinguishing on the forest fire margin, construction of broad chemical protection lanes, support lanes with the subsequent counter fire from them, as well as for elimination of peat and duff- humus fires sunk point of origin. Home and foreign industry produce a big number of different purpose EA for forest fires suppression – wetting agents, foaming agents, mixtures with higher fire-fighting and fire retardant capacity. SPbNIILH conducts laboratory researches and field tests for the purpose of the best ones selection, and carries out comparative technical-economical assessment of new and existing EA application. In course of laboratory researches, the following characteristics are determined: EA solubility, solutions viscosity, solutions surface tension, solutions moistening ability of different concentration per basic types of forest fuel materials (FFM) - green moss, lichen, litterfall  and peat, retentivity of fire extinguishing solutions on FFM, foam-forming capacity, fire-retardant properties, working concentrations, and the dosages of solutions for different forest growth conditions.

Based on the research results, the findings and recommendations are provided on conducting of experimental-productive check of EA under testing, training of its application during forest fires suppression, development of norms to perform works with AE tested and practical recommendations on tactics and methods of their application with ground and air technical means is conducted.

Development of new fire extinguishing agents for forest fires suppression

The Institute has a great experience on development of new fire extinguishing agents of different types for ground and air application, such as compositions of long-term action like ОS-5, ОS-5U, foaming agent of Faireks and the quite number of the others. During performance of R&D on creation of new EA, the following works are carried out: arguments of their production and application; development of original technical requirements and specifications for development; conducting of laboratory and field researches of AE experimental samples; preparation of necessary technical documentation; experimental-productive check of new AE, and support of their implementation.

At present the researches are conducted in two directions:

  1. creation of universal fire extinguishing agent with moistening, foam-forming and fire retardant properties as well,
  2. evaluation of possibility and economic expediency of innovative forest fire management specialized two-component composition for fire-extinguishing - quick hardening foam implementation.

Technology of forest fires stop and localization with the help of the fire screen from silica fabric

The serious difficulties arise where it is necessary to stop quickly the ground fire spreading in places impassable for tank apparatus and aggregates, heavy digging apparatus, as well as absence of water sources near fire place. The new way of ground fires localization with the help of vertical non-combustible screen is proposed to SPbNIILH.

To prevent fire passages through under the screen, the FFM located directly under it is wet with fire retardant solution or water. The experimental sample of the fire screen was tested in different productive forest conditions. Besides localization of ground fires of different intensity, the retardant can be used for supporting strips creation during counter fires performance, preventing the agriculture fires transfer into forestlands, settlements and economic entities protection against wildfires. The screen is a silica fabric with supports fixed in it.

For convenience of transportation and application, it is reeled on a light aluminum spool. The screen consists of 10 sections with 500 m total length and is easily installed on the terrain by firefighters.